International name is Vitamin D, antirachitic vitamin, ergocalciferol, cholecalcefirol, viosterol, solar vitamin. Chemical name  — ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), 1,25 (OH) 2D (1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble substance necessary for the mineral balance in the body. There are some important and the most studied forms of Vitamin D , this is cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 which is synthesized by the skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 which is contained in some products).

  • increases endurance to stress
  • improves metabolism, works as a prevention of obesity and diabetes
  • has a positive effect on the brain, attention, and memory
  • effective for 40 types of cells
  • it is used for the absorption of vitamins and minerals, including magnesium
  • strengthens bones and teeth

Red and fat sea fish, its liver (especially cod liver); black and red caviar; dairy products: butter, milk, cheese; mushrooms (chanterelles, morels, oyster mushrooms); beef and lamb liver; chicken eggs.

However, the use of these products is not enough to provide the body with the necessary amount of vitamin D.

When making a diet rich in vitamin D, it should be keep in mind that the amount of this vitamin necessary for the human body is quite difficult to get from natural products.

For example, to get a daily norm of vitamin D, you need to eat 900 grams of cod, 15 grams of salmon, or dilute all this with cod liver. For sure, not everyone will be able to adhere to such a vitamin diet for a long time.

In addition to products containing vitamin D, it is also necessary to take sun baths, so that the body itself forms this vitamin. With rare walks in the fresh air in sunny weather, the vitamin D that comes with food may not be enough. Then you should start using special vitamin complexes to prevent a deficiency of this vitamin.

The level of vitamin D is determined in the blood serum preferably by mass spectrometry. According to studies, the concentration of 25 OH (D) 40–60 ng/ml (100–150 nmol/l) is considered optimal, allowing to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer and increase life expectancy. Therefore, according to the recommendations of the ESR, the target concentration for the correction of vitamin D deficiency states is 25OH (D) > 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l).

If there is no possibility to run laboratory diagnostic, according to the recommendations of the Russian Society of Endocrinologists, a daily dose of cholecalciferol 4,000 IU for a period of more than 6 months can be prescribed to adults without determining the level of 25 (OH)D. In the future, it is recommended switching to a preventive (maintenance) dose of 1000–2000 IU.

Due to the background of taking preventive and maintenance doses of vitamin D, control 25 (OH)D in the blood is advisable to be carried out every 6–12 months, which is primarily due to fears of a decrease in its level below the target values, than an increase above the  recommended ones.

Preventive measures are simple: it is necessary to enrich your meal with products rich in calciferol, if possible – fatty fish, especially salmon breeds, cod liver, eggs, cheese.

During summertime, it is recommended to spend at least 30 minutes in the sun between 11 and 16 hours (excluding an hour and a half around noon, when the sun is at its zenith and can cause skin burns). In winter, if there are no contraindications, you can visit the solarium for preventive purposes, and the sessions should be short, no more than 3–4 minutes.

And the main point of prevention is to regularly take supplements with calciferol. This is the most reliable and safe way to saturate the body with a much-needed vitamin for health.

Overdose of vitamin D is very rare, it is difficult to get enough of it to even approach the upper limit of the norm. But with uncontrolled taking of supplements without timely delivery of tests, this can happen.

The main symptoms of overdose are headaches and sleep disturbances, vomiting, loss of appetite, constant thirst, abdominal pain and arrhythmia. If you do not take measures in time and do not consult a doctor, the risk of developing pathologies of internal organs – kidneys, heart and blood vessels, lungs and stomach-increases.

When taking preventive, there are no clear recommendations, but you should consider that there is no effect of accumulation of vitamin D. Therapeutic doses are taken until the target level of 25 (OH)D is reached, after which they are switched to preventive doses.

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